As a woodworker, you probably already know that architectural woodworking finishes are more than just a quick final polish. But do you know what all your options are for types of finishes, and what considerations you should make when selecting wood finishing systems?
Keep reading to find the answers to these questions, learn your options as a woodworker, and understand how you can use the Architectural Woodwork Standards (AWS) to comply with best industry practices relating to architectural wood finishing systems.
The Purpose of Wood Finishing Systems
An architectural woodworking finish is traditionally used as a way of enhancing or changing the natural beauty of the wood. Another clear purpose and benefit is that a good quality wood finishing system will protect the wood from different types of damage, including moisture, contaminants, and general handling.
Types of Wood Finishing
The Architectural Woodwork Standards (AWS) highlight a range of wood finishing systems, all of which provide protection for the wood, as well as points to consider when you’re selecting a finishing system.
In general, there are two types of wood finishing systems:
- Factory finishing is typically specified for high-quality work where superior appearance and performance is desired. Benefits of factory finishing include consistency, control of film thickness, and curing of the finish in a controlled environment.
- Field finishing is normally used when there is not a demand for a superior appearance. In this case, the finisher is responsible for accepting the supplied woodwork and for ensuring that the finish meets the specified standards, for example in color, texture, and sheen.
Considerations When Selecting Wood Finishes
Whichever system you choose, there are many considerations you must make when selecting the best finish. These are outlined in section 5 of the Architectural Woodwork Standards and include:
- The specifications you are given versus what is best for the woodworking job
- The cost of the system versus the benefit it provides for your job
- Optimizing application techniques so they provide a durable and aesthetically pleasing appearance
- The curing of finish systems
- Color matching and color consistency
- Open and close grains
- Resistance – against wear, chemicals, and the local environment
Wood Finishing: Perception vs Reality
Unfortunately, the general perception is that wood finishing is a simple job – all you need to do is give the wood a coat of protection and you’re finished.
As the considerations above show, the reality is more complicated than that:
- If you’re working on a large project that includes a lot of wood veneer paneling, you will have to take into account many different factors including how to preserve the color of the wood, whether or not you want to add depth to the wood, the different grains, etc.
- You need to ensure you select the right wood finishing method, as specified by the designer (there are 13 AWS finishing systems that can be used).
- You need to understand the effect that heat will have on your finished woodwork
The 13 AWS Finishing Systems
The 13 AWS wood finishing systems are detailed on page 115 of section 5 of the Architectural Woodwork Standards. Here, you will 1find more information about the types of wood finishing systems, their characteristics, and the benefits and drawbacks of each one.
The 13 AWS finishing systems include:
- Lacquer nitrocellulose
- Lacquer, pre catalyzed
- Lacquer, post catalyzed
- Latex acrylic, water-based
- Varnish, conversion
- Oil, synthetic and penetrating
- Vinyl, catalyzed
- Acrylic cross, linking, water-based
- UV curable, acrylated epoxy, polyester or urethane
- UV curable, water-based
- Polyurethane, catalyzed
- Polyurethane, water-based
- Polyester, catalyzed
In section 5, you’ll also find more information about architectural woodworking finishes, including their purpose, a more detailed explanation of the considerations to remember, techniques to consider, compliance requirements, and more.
Equipping yourself with the proper tools for success is key to a thriving career. The AWI Quality Certification Program not only provides a strong foundation, but it also allows you to deliver compliance, consistency, and quality to your clients at every step of the project, including wood finishing.